The primary objective of this knowledge synthesis was to produce a new understanding of the issues related to the integration and inclusion of at-risk students in regular elementary and secondary school classrooms. 52 articles (out of a total of 271) were selected for analysis. The findings demonstrate the contributions and limitations associated with practices that support school inclusion or integration. Secondly, favourable and unfavourable conditions for the development of more inclusive practices in the context of elementary and secondary education were identified.
Favourable and unfavourable conditions for the development of more inclusive practices were identified.
At the elementary level, the conditions conducive to the development of more inclusive practices concern the individual teacher, including: representations of the student according to abilities rather than limitations, representations of the school as a place of learning, and greater concern for instructional planning; and collaborative practices: between peers, with other education professionals and with parents.
At the secondary level, the conditions conducive to the development of more inclusive practices revolve around the school administration (organizational and educational leadership) including: support for school staff mobilization and involvement, the promotion of change and risk taking, and the creation of formal and informal discussion sessions; teacher attitudes: respectful communication, risk taking, and instructional planning; and a culture of collaboration including: co-teaching, co-planning, co-training and mentoring.
Main researcher: Nadia Rousseau, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Original title: Les enjeux de l’intégration et de l’inclusion scolaire des élèves à risque du primaire et du secondaire : méta-analyse et méta-synthèse